Despite of the fact that recently the thyroid cancer has started to appear more and more frequently, modern thyroid cancer treatment and diagnosis methods allow to disclose the cancer on early stages that significantly improves the survival rate. Thyroid cancer symptoms may be missing when the tumor has just started to develop. How to catch the first signs of the disease which treatment option to choose and how is performed the diagnosis of this type of cancer? Let us review these and some other questions in detail below.

Thyroid cancer forms in the cells of the thyroid – a “butterfly” shaped gland located at the base of the neck. Treatment options available for this disease vary depending on its type. The cancer tumor, which occurs in thyroid gland belongs to one of the below mentioned types:

  • Follicular thyroid cancer:A less common but more aggressive type of malignant tumors, which may grow in the thyroid gland from follicular cells.
  • Papillary thyroid cancer: The most common type of cancerous thyroid growths that arise from follicular cells.
  • Medullary thyroid cancer: A strand of thyroid cancer that stem from cells in the thyroid gland call “C” cells that produce a hormone called calcitonin.


Generally sings and symptoms of the developing malignancy in a thyroid gland are missing on the early stages, however as it grows the manifestations may include:

  • A lump that can be felt through the skin on the neck
  • Changes in voice
  • Difficulty swallowing
  • Pain in the neck and throat
  • Swollen lymph nodes in the neck


  • Thyroidectomy:An incision is made in the base of the neck and the thyroid gland is removed. To reduce the risk of parathyroid damage, the surgeon will, in most cases, leave small bits of thyroid tissue remaining around the parathyroid glands.
  • Thyroid hormone therapy:Regular blood tests to check thyroid hormone levels are required annually.


  • Physical exam: A doctor will check for any changes in thyroid and ask questions pertaining to their medical history
  • Blood tests: To determine the thyroid’s level of function
  • Image testing:Tests such as CT (computerized tomography) scans, PET (positron emission tomography) scans or ultrasounds are used to see whether the cancer has spread to other parts of the body.